Read the text below and answer Questions 1-6.
Environmental Engineering- A NEW SUBJECT TO EXPLORE
Gone are the days when there used to be just civil, mechanical or electrical engineering. Rapid industrialization brought a large number of specializations in engineering which have been derived from the above three basic engineering courses. In fact, when the engineering courses were introduced, there was just one branch in engineering called ‘Engineering’ or ‘Applied Science.’
Thereafter, it was divided into three basic engineering courses which reigned supreme for a long time until a few decades ago. Now, they are poor cousins to the several new branches. You now have electronics, telecommunications, mining, metallurgy, ceramics, computers, chemical, architecture, textile, aeronautical, leather technology, bio-medical, bio-technology, naval engineering, agricultural engineering and a host of other branches to choose from. All these are production-oriented.
During recent years, the exploitation of Nature has been so rapid as never before. Not just the exploitation of the natural resources, even production requires processing of raw materials in various products. In the initial stages of industrialization, waste products- whether of air, water or solid forms-were so little in quantity that the environment could easily absorb them.
However, now industrialization is taking place at such a rapid pace and the population is increasing so fast, that the environment finds it difficult to cope with their wastes. These wastes, if thrown into the environment in their pollution form are capable of producing all kinds of ill effects. Therefore, it is necessary to treat these waste materials adequately before releasing them into the environment.
All this calls for an altogether different specialization in engineering- Environmental Engineering- the only branch which is not production-oriented. It does not exploit Nature, but deals with ‘ways to protect the environment’. Although it is a new branch of engineering, its origin dates back to the advent of civil engineering itself. It used to form a part of civil engineering courses and is still taught under it in the undergraduate classes. In some institutes, it is also taught under chemical engineering course. It used to be known as ‘municipal engineering’ to begin with, then it was rechristened as ‘sanitary engineering’ and until recently it is used to be known as ‘public health engineering’.
It used to deal mainly with water treatment methods, supply of potable water, disposal of human excreta, design of septic tanks and sewer lines. But now, its field has widened. Apart from dealing with fresh water treatment, supply, sewage treatment and its disposal, the course now includes topics on air pollution and noise pollution. In some institutions, studies on waste land, forestry, wild life, environmental and architectural designs are also taken up.
Being a new field which is expanding at a rapid rate, there will be no dearth of jobs. With the promulgation of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981, Environmental Protection Act 1986, it has become obligatory on the part of every industry to treat their effluents and emissions to the required standards as set by the Government. In case of violations, these industries and the municipal authorities are liable to be prosecuted in court.
New industries and those who wish to go in for expansion have to submit ‘No Objection Certificate (NOC) from pollution angle before starting the construction works. Large industries have also to submit Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to the Government of India for clearance of the project. EIA and EMP should deal with the impact on the general environment because of establishment of a particular industry, pollution problems and methods to deal with them effectively.
Choose the most appropriate option from the ones given below.
- Why does the environment now find it difficult to cope with the problem of
- there was no environmental pollution in the initial stages of industrialization
- the environment could absorb the waste that was generated
- so much waste is generated now, the environment can’t absorb it
- engineering courses related to the environment are very few
- What does Environmental Engineering deal with?
- ways of protecting the environment
- ways of exploiting the environment for the benefit of mankind
- ways of making civil engineering useful for the environment
- ways of involving different branches of engineering in environmental study
- Why do you think new branches of engineering are coming up?
- students are bored of the old branches
- growing pollution makes this necessary
- the earlier branches are outdated and useless
- new situations demand new areas of study
- Which of the following paragraphs best describe the ‘evolution’ of
- paragraphs 1 and 2
- paragraphs 3 and 4
- paragraphs 5 and 6
- paragraphs 7 and 8
- What is the main purpose of EIA and EMP of Government of India?
- to keep the growth of large public and private industries under check
- to keep industrial pollution under control and to prevent harm to the environment
- to fine or prosecute industries that harm the environment
- to issue No Objection Certificates to a new industries or industries in expansion